Processed Meat and Cancer

Processed meats - such as bacon, sausages and ham - do cause cancer, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

Its report said 50g of processed meat a day - less than two slices of bacon - increased the chance of developing colorectal cancer by 18%.

Meanwhile, it said red meats were "probably carcinogenic" but there was limited evidence. The WHO did stress that meat also had health benefits.

Cancer Research UK said this was a reason to cut down rather than give up red and processed meats.

And added that an occasional bacon sandwich would do little harm.

What is processed meat?

Processed meat has been modified to either extend its shelf life or change the taste and the main methods are smoking, curing, or adding salt or preservatives.

Simply putting beef through a mincer does not mean the resulting mince is "processed" unless it is modified further.

Processed meat includes bacon, sausages, hot dogs, salami, corned beef, beef jerky and ham as well as canned meat and meat-based sauces.

It is the chemicals involved in the processing which could be increasing the risk of cancer. High temperature cooking, such as on a barbeque, can also create carcinogenic chemicals.

In the UK, around six out of every 100 people get bowel cancer at some point in their lives.

If they were all had an extra 50g of bacon a day for the rest of their lives then the risk would increase by 18% to around seven in 100 people getting bowel cancer.

"So that's one extra case of bowel cancer in all those 100 lifetime bacon-eaters," argued Sir David Spiegelhalter, a risk professor from the University of Cambridge.

How bad?

The WHO has come to the conclusion on the advice of its International Agency for Research on Cancer, which assesses the best available scientific evidence.

It has now placed processed meat in the same category as plutonium, but also alcohol as they definitely do cause cancer.

However, this does not mean they are equally dangerous. A bacon sandwich is not as bad as smoking.

"For an individual, the risk of developing colorectal (bowel) cancer because of their consumption of processed meat remains small, but this risk increases with the amount of meat consumed," Dr Kurt Straif from the WHO said.

Estimates suggest 34,000 deaths from cancer every year could be down to diets high in processed meat.

That is in contrast to one million deaths from cancer caused by smoking and 600,000 attributed to alcohol each year.

Red meat does have nutritional value too and is a major source of iron, zinc and vitamin B12.

However, the WHO said there was limited evidence that 100g of red meat a day increased the risk of cancer by 17%.

The WHO said its findings were important for helping countries give balanced dietary advice.

Prof Tim Key, from the Cancer Research UK and the University of Oxford, said: "This decision doesn't mean you need to stop eating any red and processed meat, but if you eat lots of it you may want to think about cutting down.

"Eating a bacon bap every once in a while isn't going to do much harm - having a healthy diet is all about moderation."

Dr. Teresa Norat, one of the advisors to the WHO report and from Imperial College London, said there were many factors causing bowel cancer.

She told BBC News website: "People should limit consumption of red meat and avoid consuming processed meat, but they should also have a diet rich in fibre, from fruit and vegetables and maintain an adequate body weight throughout life and limit the consumption of alcohol and be physically active."

The industry body the Meat Advisory Panel said "avoiding red meat in the diet is not a protective strategy against cancer" and said the focus should be alcohol, smoking and body weight.


The Healthy Weekend Challenge

We've all been there: you try to eat healthy Monday through Friday, but then blow it on the weekend. A University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill study revealed that adults take in an extra 222 calories -nearly 15% of the number of calories an average women needs each day- over the course of the weekend (including Friday). This is why we created this "Healthy Weekend Challenge", it will help you stay on track and prepare you for next week!  Are you in? 

  • Get some rest and sleep. Don't start next week tired. Rather than cramming in a bunch of activities this weekend, take time to rest and sleep at least 7-8 hours each night.

  • Splurge in a healthy way. Some weeks feel longer than others, and you might feel like you need a little bit of a splurge, and by all means, go for it!! Make sure you splurge in a healthy way. Always choose the healthier options.

  • Make a meal plan for next week. Eating well is so much easier when you have a plan. Planning meals helps you manage your time better and makes meal preparation easier. Eliminate last minute stress and plan ahead of time. 

  • Squeeze in a longer workout. Since you have more time it will be easier to add some extra minutes to your workout.  

  • Stick to one cheat meal. Remember, its a cheat meal not a cheat weekend. 

  • Get outdoors. Spending more time outdoors can help with weight management, reduces risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, heart attacks and some forms of cancer. You also have more opportunities for social interactions, which may improve mental well-being.

  • Enjoy a glass of red wine. Red wine, in moderation, has been long thought of as heart healthy. The alcohol and certain substances in red wine called antioxidants may help prevent heart disease by increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, (also known as "good cholesterol") and protecting against artery damage. 

6 Questions you MUST ask your Plastic Surgeon before surgery


Plastic surgery is on the rise and so are the number of patients who receive bad results. A lot of time doctors and patients are not on the same page with realistic goals or patients are not educated enough to know what procedure is right for them. Having open communication with your plastic surgeon will help you to achieve the best results and will help you work together to achieve more realistic goals.  Asking these questions are a MUST before you undergo any type of plastic surgery to assistance you in attaining the greatest results possible:

1.       Are you board certified? This is one of the most crucial questions to ask your plastic surgeon. Proof that your surgeon is well qualified is to do your surgery is if they are board certified by either the American Board of Plastic Surgery or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Board certified means that they had to undergo five years of training and numerous examinations. You can check to see if your surgeon is certified here:


2.       Am I a good candidate for this procedure? Many patients may want a specific procedure that they think will be a good fit for them, however before running the risk of a procedure not taking or turning out badly the best thing to do is to ask your doctor first. Ask your doctor for more specifics to see if you qualify or what you need to accomplish to be qualified for the operation. There are usually certain qualifications of a good candidate for each operation. Make sure your surgeon knows what those qualifications are before going under the knife.  


3.       How many times have you performed this procedure? The ideal number your surgeon has done a specific procedure should be a hundred or more per year. Saying no to surgeons doing the procedure for the first or even tenth time would be the right decision. You want a surgeon who has become an expert on that procedure so you can relax knowing that your results should be exactly what you are wanting.


4.       Will you show me some before and after pictures of patients that you have previously performed this surgery on? Any true expert physician should have a copy of these pictures at their practice or on their website. Make sure you insist on seeing these photos not only for proof of their expertise but also every surgeon is different. You may not like how one surgeon does a procedure compared to another. Seeing these pictures will help you to decide if this is the type of outcome you are looking for.


5.       Are there any risks and/or complications to this procedure? Knowing the risks or complications to a specific surgery might make it easier for you to find the right fit. There are many procedures out there that have minimal risks or even non-surgical alternatives so be sure to ask your doctor about all your options. There is also no absolute guarantee of any surgery. Be sure to notify your doctor of all medications you are currently taking and any known allergies.


6.       How long of a recovery period should I expect, and what type of help will I need during my recovery time? Preparing for surgery can feel overwhelming and scary if you are unsure as to what to expect. Knowing your recovery time and what type of help you will need will calm your nerves and put you more in control. These factors will also assist you in deciding what is right for you and your body.



* Don’t be intimidated to get a second opinion. The value of ensuring you get the results you want is all in good preparation and ensuring that you’re comfortable with who is doing the work.  A second opinion will help you to compare prices so you know you are getting the best treatment for your dollar and will help if both doctors agree that a certain surgery is right for you.  Sometimes a quick search online for reviews of different surgeons and their patients results can tell you everything you need to know about who you’re letting operate on you. 



New Research means Bright Future for Type 1 Diabetics

Type 1 diabetics that are currently controlling their disorder through pills or injections may never need to poke themselves every again! Since type 1 diabetics cannot produce insulin, a naturally-occurring hormone of the human body, human guts cells that may be able to produce insulin might help to solve their condition. 

Researchers from Columbia University studied gastrointestinal cells located in the human torso. What they have found is that by turning off a single gene, named FOX01, in these arrangements causes those cells to start producing insulin. From this information, there is possible hope for a drug creation that would reinstruct cells in diabetics to start producing this much needed hormone. 
Researchers, using stem cells, created a tissue model of a human intestine and trained those cells to stop the FOXO1 gene which, within a week, started producing the crucial hormone. What really made this research plausible, was the cells only started producing insulin when they were provided with sugar, just like the natural process of the human body. 

Since the human immune system can reject cells that are foreign to them, current procedures using stem or embryonic cells, will become obsolete. With this research, patients will be able to train their own cells to produce insulin allowing the prevention of procedural rejections and increasing the amount of successful patients. 

More research is still needed before this becomes available to the public. However if it does the efforts of medical researchers over the past twenty years will finally end in victory. 

Production of insulin in the gastrointestinal cells investigation was published in the journalNature Communications.

Epilepsy Treatment WITHOUT Drugs?



“Biofeedback Therapy”

by Brooke Huber


Epilepsy is an illness that is usually controlled with medication from your doctor. However, it is believed by many that being put on prescription medication can cause one to feel “controlled” by the substance. Although the medication has helped control many people’s seizures, it has also been known to cause disturbing side effects to the body.

Some of these side effects include:

·         Blurred vision

·         Fatigue

·         Dizziness

·         Upset Stomach

Among these side effects, there are also unpredictable side effects that can happen when taking such medication. It can cause a serious drop in your white blood cell count (used to fight bodily infections) or a serious drop in your platelets (needed to control bleeding). You may also develop a serious skin rash, liver and pancreas problems, or aplastic anemia (bone marrow damage).

It is important for people who suffer from epilepsy to know that there are other options for treatment. Biofeedback Therapy is an alternative strategy for controlling your Epilepsy. It has been successfully practiced since the 1940’s and is known as a “mind and body technique”. Biofeedback Therapy was formulated to help people control the heavier and more stressful symptoms of Epilepsy in a more natural way. This type of treatment allows you to train and control body functions that would normally happen automatically.

Controllable bodily functions include:

  • Blood pressure
  • Muscle tension
  • Heartbeat
  • Migraines
  • Body temperature
  • And more


The procedure works by allowing you to first observe these movements on monitors and eventually change them yourself. After enough sessions of Biofeedback Therapy, you are able to minimize your number of seizures and the severity all by self-controlling them.

Click here to book an appointment to learn more about Biofeedback Therapy


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Is Sushi Really Healthy?

International Sushi Day is upon us and every year sushi is becoming more and more popular. It is looked at as the healthier choice of take out, date night, or girl’s night out. However, as healthy as it might sound, some maki sushi rolls can be loaded with more calories and fat than a cheeseburger! 

Use these tips to keep your rolls tasty but still nutritious:  

1. Ask for Brown Rice: Although this option only saves you a handful of calories, it is the whole grains that make it healthy. Whole grains have been proven to be heart healthy and protective!
2. Skip on Tempura or any fried rolls: Fried anything is filled with extra calories and fat. You can still eat your favorite rolls by asking the restaurant not to deep-fry it. 
3. Choose Veggies: Vegetables rolls, such as avocado, cucumber, shiitake mushrooms, and many others only offer heart healthy goodness while keeping the calories low. 
4. Eel is an ill choice: Eel is very high in calories and fat, and although it is delicious, limit yourself to this roll once in a while.
5. Be Selective on Spicy Mayo: Spicy Tuna rolls are delicious and tuna is a great choice, but when drenched in mayo it becomes a waste of calories. 

Try this Healthy Spin on your Favorite Sushi Roll at Home:

Quinoa Sushi

Ingredients – Serves 3:

- 3 sheets of nori

- 170g/half a cup of quinoa

- 3 tbsp thick greek yogurt

- 2 carrots, grated

- Half green pepper, sliced

- Half a salmon fillet, cooked

See the rest of the recipe here on Hungry Healthy Happy’s Blog

EZDOCTOR: Lupus Q & A with Rheumatologist: Dr. Santiago

Dr. Santiago-Casas joined Drs. Kahn and Riskin’s practice (South Florida Rheumatologist) after serving as an attending physician and Associate Professor of Medicine in the Department of Rheumatology at the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

You can book an appointment with Dr. Santiago-Casas in Hollywood, Florida here: 

What is systemic lupus erythematosus or lupus? 

This is an autoimmune disease where the body’s immune system that normally works to fight infections and harmful cells fails and attacks the body. It is 10 times more frequent in women and usually affects 20-30 year old women.  Lupus is most common in certain ethnic groups including African Americans, Asians and Hispanics. It is a chronic disease that can affect multiple organs in the body including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, and brain.  

What is the cause of lupus?

The exact cause of SLE is not known. However, both genetic and environmental factors have been linked to its development.

What are the symptoms of lupus? 

Lupus is a disease that affects multiple systems in the body. The symptoms of lupus include the following: tiredness or fatigue, weight loss, fever without cause, headaches, skin rash especially with sun exposure (this includes the characteristic rash that may appear on the nose and cheeks shaped like a butterfly), hair loss, mouth sores, easy bruising, joint pain, swelling, and/or stiffness, foamy urine, difficulty concentrating, and mood changes.  The spectrum of manifestations of SLE is wide, meaning that some people may present mild symptoms, while others present severe manifestations. The symptoms of arthritis occur in many lupus patients, commonly affecting the fingers, wrists and knees. The majority of the patients have periods of time where the disease is active (commonly known as flares), followed by inactive disease.  

How is SLE diagnosed?

SLE is diagnosed by evaluating the signs and symptoms the patient presents, as well as by the findings in physical examination. Certain laboratory tests are crucial for confirming a diagnosis of lupus. The most important screening test measures ANA, but having a positive ANA does not necessarily mean that a patient has lupus. If the patient presents a positive ANA, more specific tests are necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

What is the treatment of SLE?

There is no cure for SLE. However, there is very good therapy to control the disease and limit the damage to the organs. This therapy has particularly advanced over the lasts years.  The specific type of therapy depends on the manifestations and the severity of lupus. Milder symptoms may respond to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). Therapy also involves hydroxychloroquine and steroids which are used to control the immune system and prevent damage related to the disease. Steroids are very useful in lupus however their use should be carefully monitor as to prevent unwanted side effects such as weight gain, weakening of the bones, and diabetes, among others.  

-Other medications that suppress the immune system might be necessary to control lupus activity including mycophenolate, cyclophosphamide, and azathioprine. Newer medications that have been used to treat lupus patients include biologic agents such as rituximab, abatacept and recently belimumab, which has been FDA approved for treating SLE. 

-Avoiding the sun exposure is very important since it has been linked to flares of SLE. It is especially important to avoid exposure between 10 AM and 3 PM. Patients are advised to use protective clothing and sunscreen with SPF of 50 or greater. 

-It is recommended that lupus patients follow a well-balanced diet which is low in fat and high in fruits, vegetables and whole grains.  Since steroid use (prednisone) may be required, weight gain might be a possible side effect of therapy. It is important for patients to remain active.  Especially in patients who take steroids, calcium and vitamin d supplementation is advised. Calcium is recommended at a range of 1000-1200 mg daily, while vitamin d is recommended at 400-800 units daily, in order to decrease bone loss (which can occur with steroid use).

-A number of medications have been linked to worsening of lupus symptoms. It is crucial that patients tell their doctors they have lupus and the medications they are taking. 

Lupus and pregnancy

It is important that patients with lupus plan their pregnancies and discuss their desires of pregnancy with their doctors early in this process. The chances of having a pregnancy without complications improve when patients become pregnant once their lupus is in control. If the lupus is active, patients should avoid pregnancy due to the high risk of possible complications.

Lupus is a complex disease, many times very challenging to manage. Thus, it is crucial to follow with a Rheumatologist who is the expert in diagnosing and treating autoimmune diseases such as SLE in order to start therapy promptly and effectively.
This is the butterfly or malar rash, a red rash that involves the cheeks and nose and that is frequently triggered by sun exposure.
Lupus is a disease that can affect multiple organs. It can cause inflammation in the kidneys, the tissue lining the lungs (pleura) and heart (pericardium), and the brain.

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EZDOCTOR: Rheumatoid arthritis Q & A with Rheumatologist: Dr. Santiago

Dr. Santiago-Casas joined Drs. Kahn and Riskin’s practice (South Florida Rheumatologist) after serving as an attending physician and Associate Professor of Medicine in the Department of Rheumatology at the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

You can book an appointment with Dr. Santiago-Casas in Hollywood, Florida here: 

What is rheumatoid arthritis? 

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease that produces pain, swelling and stiffness in the joints. The specific cause of this condition remains unknown, however genetic, hormonal, infectious and environmental factors have been linked to its development. It a type of autoimmune disease, meaning there is an error in the system that protects us from infections, where the system now attacks the joints. Approximately 1.3 million adults in the United States have RA. This type of arthritis is more common in women. It usually starts around the fourth and six decade of life, however it can occur at any age.

What are the symptoms of RA?

RA usually affects the small joints in the fingers, wrists and feet. It predominantly affects both sides of the body at the same time. Although it usually starts in the small joints of the fingers and toes, it can affect any of the joints. In addition, it may also begin in a single joint such as the knee or the shoulder. The onset of joint symptoms is usually gradually. These symptoms include joint pain, redness, warmth to the touch, and joint swelling. The joint stiffness is usually worse in the mornings and tends to last longer than 1 hour. Other symptoms of RA include tiredness, low grade fevers, loss of appetitive, nodules in the skin, and dryness of eyes. RA affects not only the joints, but other parts of the body as well, such as the eyes, heart, and lungs.

How is RA diagnosed?

The diagnosis of RA is based on a composite of factors including the characteristic signs and symptoms of the condition, the findings on physical examination, the results of the laboratory tests and the imaging results (including x-rays, ultrasound, and MRI). The initial symptoms of the condition may be very subtle making it especially difficult to diagnose in its early stages. 

What is the treatment for rheumatoid arthritis? 

The course of RA is variable. In the majority of the people the symptoms fluctuate for weeks or months. However, it is generally impossible to predict the course of RA or how it will affect a particular individual. Studies have shown however that the treatment of this type of arthritis must be initiated early in its course as to reduce the symptoms of arthritis, improve the quality of life, preserve physical function, and prevent joint damage.

The treatment in general of this condition involves three classes of medications: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (or ‘NSAIDs’), steroids, and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (or ‘DMARDs’). The specific type of medications depends on the patient’s individual characteristics and their side effect profile. However, once the diagnosis of RA is made the patient must start therapy with a DMARD promptly. DMARDs include methotrexate, sulfasalazine, leflunomide, hydroxychloroquine, and the biologic agents. Response to treatment usually requires several weeks, depending on the medication used. 

The biologic agents include etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, certolizumab pegol, golimumab, abatacept, tocilizumab, rituximab, and the newer agent tofacitinib. In contrast to non-biologic DMARDs, the biologic agents begin to work rapidly within 2 weeks for some medications and four to six weeks for others. Biologics are usually used in combination with methotrexate; however some of them may also be used alone. 

Of note, studies have shown that patients with RA have a higher risk of heart disease and stroke, thus starting appropriate therapy for this type of arthritis is crucial not only for the joints, but for the rest of body.

Lifestyle changes are also important including eating a healthy diet, with plenty of fruits and vegetables. Also it is very important to stay active. However, during the episodes of flares of the arthritis, rest is advised and active exercises are avoided because symptoms might worsen. During these periods, mostly stretching and range of motion exercises are maintained. Evaluation by a physical therapist might be warranted to tailor a specific exercise program.

Several studies have shown that smoking is a risk factor for RA and that quitting smoking can actually improve the symptoms of this condition.  People with RA who smoke need to quit doing so promptly.

Surgery might necessary in patients with long term RA who do not exhibit ongoing inflammation, but rather present joint damage. In these cases where pain originates from joint damage and long term effects of arthritis, surgery might be indicated to replace the damaged joint.

The rheumatologists are the specialists best suited to diagnose this condition, especially in the early stages of the condition where it can mimic other diseases, and offer the best therapy available.

The structure of the normal joint is shown on the left. On the right side is the joint with rheumatoid arthritis. RA causes pain and swelling of the synovium (the tissue that lines the joint). This can make cartilage (the tissue that cushions between joints) and bone wear away (erosion).

Rheumatoid arthritis affects the wrist and the small joints of the hand, including the knuckles and the middle joints of the fingers.

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Good Carbs, Bad Carbs: Who’s to Blame?

Confusion about Carbohydrates – Change Your Diet, Change Your Body

By Brooke Huber

Yes, Carbohydrates are energy producing nutrients, but too much of a good thing can be bad! It is important to understand the difference between good carbs and bad carbs.

Good carbohydrates include high fiber foods containing an abundant amount of vitamins and minerals to maintain an even supply of energy. Good Carbohydrates Examples: whole grains, beans, fruit and vegetables. Bad carbs come from white bread, white rice, pastry, sugary sodas and other highly processed foods, which can lead to obesity. If you eat a lot of these bad carbs they will increase your risk for disease.

When you intake carbohydrates, your pancreas releases insulin, this hormone enables you to digest starches and sugars. The more sucrose you have (table sugar) the higher your insulin level becomes. When exercising, the first thing your body burns off BEFORE the fat, is insulin. So the more carbs you have in your body, the longer it takes to lose that weight. If you really want to be healthier and shed off those pounds quickly, cut out the bad carbohydrates and try replacing them for good carbohydrates and protein. The difference you will see in your weight loss is night and day. If you’re not in taking as many bad carbs, then there is less insulin in your body and you will begin to immediately burn off the fat. Here, use this diagram to help you better understand.

Notice the layer of carbohydrates (insulin) in the body above. When you intake carbohydrates, a layer of insulin formulates around the fat like you see in the picture. While many people will exercise and believe they are burning this fat, many have not even reached that stage. Many people will also leave the gym and have a high carb meal without being aware. This leaves your workout merely pointless. Replacing those bad carbs for good carbs and protein will keep that layer of insulin thin. Thus, making your goal to lose weight achievable and your risk for diseases much lower by obtaining a healthy balance in your diet. Feel and look great fast, change your diet and create a better you!

EZDOCTOR: Osteoarthritis Q & A with Rhuematologist: Dr. Santiago

Dr. Santiago-Casas joined Drs. Kahn and Riskin’s practice (South Florida Rheumatologist) after serving as an attending physician and Associate Professor of Medicine in the Department of Rheumatology at the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

You can book an appointment with Dr. Santiago-Casas in Hollywood, Florida here: 

FAQ with Dr. Santiago-Casas

What is Osteoarthritis?

It is the most common form of joint disease and represents a leading cause of disability among the elderly. OA is a slowly progressive arthritis that is typically seen in middle-aged to elderly people. The place where 2 bones meet is normally covered with a rubbery material called cartilage. This material allows the bones to slide over each other without causing pain. The disease occurs when the joint cartilage breaks down often because of mechanical stress or biochemical alterations, causing the bone underneath to fail. With this condition there are also bony changes of the joints, as well as deterioration of tendons and ligaments, and various degrees of inflammation.

It is commonly referred to as OA or as “wear and tear” of the joints, but we now know that OA is a disease of the entire joint, involving the cartilage, joint lining, ligaments, and bone. Although it is more common in older people, it is not really accurate to say that the joints are just “wearing out.” OA can occur as a primary entity; however, it can also occur together with other types of arthritis, such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis.

How common is this arthritis?

About 27 million Americans are living with OA, the most common form of joint disease. Studies suggest that the lifetime risk of developing OA of the knee is about 46%, and the lifetime risk of developing OA of the hip is 25%.

What are the joints typically affected by OA?

OA tends to affect commonly used joints such as the hands, great toes, and spine, and the weight bearing joints such as the hips and knees.

What are the most common symptoms of OA?

OA symptoms (what you feel) can vary greatly among patients. The most common symptoms include joint pain and stiffness, joint swelling, grinding noise with joint movement, and decreased function of the joint.

Who gets osteoarthritis?

OA affects people of all races and both sexes. Most often, it occurs in patients age 40 and older. However, it can occur sooner in the presence of other risk factors including family history of OA, obesity, joint injury or repetitive use (overuse) of joints, joint deformity such as unequal leg length, and bowlegs or knocked knees.

How is osteoarthritis diagnosed?

Most often doctors detect OA based on the typical symptoms and on results of the physical exam. In some cases, X-rays or other imaging tests may be useful to tell the extent of disease or to help rule out other joint problems. A rheumatologist can detect arthritis and prescribe the proper treatment.

Osteoarthritis of the knee

The bones that meet at a joint usually do not rub against each other because they are covered by a rubbery material called cartilage. In people with osteoarthritis, the cartilage wears away, and the bones can grind against each other. Sometimes the bones also form spurs.

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